Anatoly Levenchuk (ailev) wrote,
Anatoly Levenchuk
ailev

Кен Уилбер про роль религии в современном мире

Я довольно часто ссылался в дискуссиях с kuznetsov на слова Кена Уилбера про роль религии в современном мире как последнего оставшегося конвейера по массовому моральному просвещению населения -- и нужно бы уже иметь этот кусочек текста в Сети, чтобы не иметь дело с пересказом. Привожу полностью, без купюр (из черновичка книжки Integral Spirituality, 2005г. стр.95-101):
<предваряется рассуждениями про террористов, все из которых имеют amber уровень, а эмоция канализирована через red -- и нужно что-то делать, чтобы массово вытаскивать таких людей на более высокие уровни, иначе обществу каюк -- ибо таких "потенциальных террористов" множество, все люди проходят эту стадию развития, и нужно, чтобы они не застревали на ней>.

Religion alone, of all of humanity's endeavors, can serve as the great "conveyor belt" for humanity and its stages of growth. And religion alone can do this, for several reasons. The first is that the worldís religions are the repository of the great myths. The early stages of development are archaic and magic and mythic in flavor. And these great myths, laid down 3000 years ago, could never be created today, not because humanity has no imagination, but because everybody has a video-camera. Just let Moses try to claim he parted the Red Sea today and see how far he gets.

I say that somewhat facetiously, but actually I am deeply serious. Every infant today begins moving from archaic instincts to magic beliefs to mythic worldviews, and will do so one way or another. Look at Piagetís work and you will see the 5-year old child today produce all the major contours of the worldís great myths. The mythic-stagу of the religious systems speak deeply to these stages of development, and, to repeat,
THOSE STAGES ARE NOT GOING AWAY.

And since humanity today, armed with video-cameras, will never get a new supply of fresh, believable myths -- of Moses parting the Red Sea, or Jesus born from a biological virgin, or Lao Tzu being 900 years old when he was born, and so on -- the world's great mythic-religious systems are a precious human resource, the only ones speaking to those unavoidable stages of human growth. They got their start with the archaic and magic and mythic stages of humanity itself, and hence are a repository of precious interior human resource much more scarce than oil and gas and the world's
great religious systems are there to handle those stages in the interior. This is exactly why that 70% is owned by the world's religions.

But the worldís great religions are not only that. Precisely because they got their start with the magenta and red and amber stages of humanity itself, they control the legitimacy conferred on those beliefs. Because of that, they are the only sources of authority that can sanction the orange and higher stages of spiritual intelligence in their own traditions. They are the only systems in the world today that can act as a great conveyor belt, helping people move from red to amber to orange to green to turquoise and higher, because they alone can pronounce all of those stages kosher, imprimatur, sacred, acceptable, within their own lineages.

That is a perhaps the most important role for religion in the modern and postmodern world, acting as a sacred conveyor belt for humanity in the line of its spiritual intelligence.

Human beings, starting at square one, will develop however far they develop, and they have the right to stop wherever they stop. Some will stop at red, some at amber; some will move to orange or higher; some will develop to a stage, stop for a while, then continue growth; others will stop growing around adolescence and never really grow again. But that is their right; people have the right to stop at whatever stage they stop at.

I try emphasize this by saying that every stage is also a station in life. Some people will spend their entire adult lives at red or amber, and that is their right. Others will move on. But religion alone, of all endeavors, can have a catechism of the stations in life: here is a red version of Christ, here is an amber version of Christ, here is an orange version of Christ, here is an indigo version of Christ, and so on.

This is an extraordinary role for any institution to play, and spirituality alone can do so, as I said, because it is the only institution allowed to sanction stages that humanity in its infancy and childhood passed through, now encoded in its mythic-level versions of its spiritual message. This is categorically not the case with medicine, law, physics, biochemistry, architecture, etc., who jettison their childhood versions and adopt only the latest of today's findings. We do not see physicians today recommending leeches, nor astronomers teaching astrology. But we do find preachers doing so. And that is fine -- teaching magic and myth -- as long as the great religions also make available -- as kosher -- the orange and higher levels and stages of their spirituality, stages that have kept pace with Spirit's own unfolding into the modern and postmodern and integral ages....

Religion alone can step in and undo the steel lid, the pressure-cooker lid, now encircling the earth and choking its interiors to death. Until then, terrorists will keep trying to blow up that lid, and college students will pray in the closet trying to avoid it.

Higher Stages, but Also Higher States
The second major role for religion in the modern and postmodern world? Not only make orange and higher stages available, but also make contemplative states the core of their training, or at least a core offering. The nice thing about this role is that states are available at every stage -- and therefore every station -- in life. Authentic spirituality is available not just at the higher stages of development (or the transpersonal second and third tier stages -- which is meaning or dimension #1 of spirituality), but aspects or dimensions of spirituality are available as authentic religious experiences (or states) at any of those stages or stations (which is meaning or dimension #2). So there is literally something of deep profundity to offer individuals at every stage or station in life. One can take up meditation, contemplation, or centering prayer whether one is at red, amber, orange, green, etc., and plumb the depths of those dimensions.
(Can somebody who takes up meditation at, say, amber, achieve anything like enlightenment? The answer appears to be yes and no -- and for this issue, please see the Appendix.)

Right now, spiritual state-experience is often forced off stage and into evangelical revivalist meetings and pentecostal meetings, which are usually subtle-state experiences and altered states of an occasionally deep nature -- reaching into Underhill's state of illumination and graceóbut they are kept segmented into red and barely amber stages of development. But again, the good news is that a variety of gross to subtle to causal to nondual states are available at red and amber and orange and green.... So this truly gives the great religions a menu of humanity's grand potentials, possessing both great depth and great span.

For the more advanced spiritual practitioner, there are the stages of spiritual intelligence that continue to develop into orange, green, turquoise, indigo (and higher), and all the techniques that can help people grown and transform through those levels, as well as the meditative states-training that continues to serve as a primary means of contemplative practice at any stage. (Combining those is one of the goals of Integral Transformative Practice.)

So here is the overall picture I wanted to convey in this section:

Everybody is born at square one. There will always be people at red, and that is fine. There will always be people at amber, and that is fine. There will always be people at orange, and that is fine..., and so on. An enlightened society would always make room for that by recognizing that stages in development are stations in life. And somebody can stop at any of those stations (of Spiritís own unfolding) and they deserve honor and respect at whatever station they are at.

But the earlier stations -- archaic to magic to mythic -- are stages that, nonetheless, are stages that humanity's leading edge passed through in its infancy, childhood, and adolescence. But because religion alone is the repository of the myths created during those times, religion alone is the institution in todayís world that gives legitimacy to those earlier stages and stations for men and women. Religion alone gives legitimacy to the myths. And religion alone owns that 70% of the worldís population at those stages.

All of which is good and beautiful. But precisely because of its ownership of the pre-rational heritage of humanity (and the pre-rational corpus of the great myths), religion alone can help its followers move from the pre-rational, mythic-membership, ethnocentric, absolutistic version of its message to the rational-perspectival, worldcentric, postconventional versions of its own message. This jump from ethnocentric amber to worldcentric orange is the great leap that religions alone can help humanity make.

The great religions alone can be the conveyor belt that gives legitimacy (in both the sociological and religious sense) to the orange (and higher) versions of their essential story and their essential spirituality. This is a difficult jump, as everything from terrorists to closeted college students attest. This difficulty is best analyzed using quadrants:

In the UL, psychologically, an individual needs to move from ethnocentric beliefs to worldcentric beliefs. This is a difficult transformation from a role-based identity to a person-based identity. But this allows the individual to adopt a postconventional, worldcentric moral stance and not just an ethnocentric, us-versus-them mentality. For an individual with a Christian-faith background, the leap comes in realizing that Jesus Christ can be my personal savior, but that others may find a different path that leads to the same salvation -- that the Holy Spirit speaks to men and women in different ways, in different tongues, in different lands, but is fully present nonetheless.

Crucially, in the LL, the individual needs to feel that his or her religion supports a truly universal or catholic Jesus, and not merely an ethnocentric creed. In some cases, this is a hotly contested issue, with, for example, Vatican II opening the door and the last two Popes trying to close it.

How this will be institutionalized (in the LR) will help determine the behavior (UR) that is appropriate for a person of faith in the modern and postmodern world. Will there be a conveyor belt that they can ride from pre-rational to rational to trans-rational, or will religion remain merely the repository of humanity's childhood?

If chooses the latter, then all around it, the other disciplines (law, medicine, science, education) will continue to move into the things that adults do, and religion will remain the things that children (and adult children) do--like blow up things. But if religion lives up to its promise as being that endeavor in humanity that allows Spirit to speak through it, and Spirit is indeed evolving in its own manifestation, then religion can become a conveyor belt for humanity, carrying it from the childhood productions of Spirit to the adolescent productions of Spirit to the adult productions of Spirit... and beyond that into the great tomorrow of Spirit's continuing display.

This, surely, is the great role for religion in the modern and postmodern world.

Вот пара картинок, которая иллюстрирует использованные обозначения (чтобы уж совсем не вырывать этот текст из общего "интегрального" контекста):

(все эти LL и UR -- это lower left и upper right квадранты из этой картинки)


(номера dimensions -- внешние и внутренние перспективы на картинке квадрантов перспектив)


цветовой код из этого отрывка -- обобщенные по многим источникам (утверждается, что более чем ста) уровни развития

Я сам склоняюсь к мысли, что будет реализован путь, проходящий через развитие права, медицины, науки, образования -- а религия пойдет в итоге побоку. С моей точки зрения, использовать религию как метод манипулирования сознанием (даже в благих целях морального роста общества) -- нехорошо. Если знаешь, что байки про хождение по водам и кормление хлебами -- это байки, а не правда, нехорошо использовать тот факт, что другие в это верят. Или мы сходу попадаем в утилитаризм "а если не будут верить, то перебьют друг друга -- ты этого хочешь? Лги во благо!", чего бы мне не хотелось.
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